There are four major steps involved in constructing a well: drilling the hole, installing the casing, well development and pump installation or capping.
A new well starts with a hole bored into the ground. The upper hole contains the casing. The casing provides structural stability which prevents the collapse of the walls and prevents contaminates from entering the water supply. It also provides housing for the pump and the pipe which moves the water from the pump to the surface. A drive shoe (a round thick piece of steel) is welded to the bottom of the casing to prevent damage during driving and to make a good seal with the formation. After the casing is installed, the space between it and the hole is pumped with a grout to prevent contaminates from traveling down alongside the casing into the lower section of the well. The lower hole below the casing is the intake through which the water enters the well. The intake may be an open hole or screened and gravelpacked depending upon the geologic conditions. Once the well is completed it is pumped to develop the well, properly disinfected and capped until it is ready to hook up.
Once the drilling rig is set up the drilling process may last from a few hours to a day or two depending on the formations that are encountered. During the drilling, the driller keeps a detailed well log of the drill cuttings that are obtained and files this information with the MN Department of Health. Once the borehole is drilled, the driller installs the well casing, usually PVC pipe and develops and disinfects the well. The well is developed to clean the borehole and casing of drilling fluid by surging water or air in and out of the well screen openings. Chlorine is added to disinfect the well and it is sealed with a water tight cap until the pump is installed.
*Water wells supply more than half of this country's drinking water to over 40 million Americans. A private well supply is a good-long term asset and adds value to your property.